|Although the state is small with a population of only over three million, Tripura is the 2nd most populous state in the North Eastern Region. The social composition of the population of Tripura is diverse. Around one-third of the population belongs to the Scheduled Tribes. According to 2011 census, the state's population is 36.74 lakh, with a density of 350 persons per sq. km.
Population pattern and demography have always been fluctuating. In 1901 Tripura's population was 1.73 lakh, with tribals making up nearly 52.89 percent of the whole. By 1941, the total population rose to 5.13 lakh with a barely 50.09 percent tribal majority. But by 1981, the tribal population dipped to 28.44 percent of a total population of 2.05 million because of several socio-political developments.
1. Total number of Households has increased from 664334 in 2001 to 855556 in 2011 (increased by 28.8%) whereas total Population increased from 3199203 in 2001 to 3673917 in 2011 (increased by 14.8%).
2. Sex Ratio is 960 (in 2001 it was 948); in all India scenario it is 943.
3. Population in the group 0-6 increased from 436446 in 2001 to 458014 in 2011 (increased by 5%).
i. Schedule Cast Population is 17.8% of total population. Sex ratio was 962 in 2001 which had increased to 959 in 2011.
ii. Schedule Tribe Population is 31.8% of total Population. Sex ratio was 970 in 2001; now in 2011 it is 983 (for rural 982 and urban 1017).
4. Literacy rate, as per the 2011 Census was 87.22% (against 73.19% in 2001). By 08.09.2014, literacy rate of the state reached upto 96.82 percent. Male-Female Literacy gap reduced to 7 percent which was the highest reduction in the country during the 2001-2011 decade, thus fetching the State Decadal Literacy Award.
From the distant past, agriculture in various forms has been the mainstay in the lives of people in Tripura. The primary sector (Agricultural) contributes about 64% of total employment in the state and about 48% of the State Domestic Product (SDP). A variety of Horticultural/ Plantation Crops are produced in Tripura like Pineapple, Orange, Cashew nut, Jackfruit, Coconut, Tea, Rubber, Forest Plantations etc. At present both conventional settled agriculture in the plains and Jhum system of cultivation in the hills are practiced, although earlier many tribal people depended more on Jhum system of cultivation, perhaps due to their life-pattern i.e. predominantly living in the hill areas.